Drugs are chemical substances. There are three different types of drugs: stimulants, depressants and hallucinogens.
Stimulants speed up the central nervous system. They increase heart rate, blood pressure and breathing. Examples are caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines, ecstasy and cocaine.
Depressants slow down the central nervous system. They decrease heart and breathing rates. Alcohol, heroin and analgesics are common examples of these types of drugs.
Hallucinogens change mood, thought and senses. LSD is the most well-known example of this type of drug.
A traditional market
A traditional market is the type of market where people can bargain the prices. The items sold in traditional market are basically the same. They are fruits, vegetables, meat and fish, spices, dry good and household items. At the glances, the market may seem to be disorganized mess.
Surrounding the market there are many small scale traders, usually selling fruits. This traders can not afford the cost of renting a stall inside the market.
On the first floor of the market, there are permanent kiosks and stall selling textile, stationery, clothing, electronic goods, household appliances, gold shops, etc.
On the second floor, people can buy meat and fish, fruits, vegetables, and dry goods. The sellers sell fruits and vegetables through the middle area. Meanwhile they sell dry goods in the edge area of the second floor
Birds are interesting flying animals. They are vertebrates and warm blooded animals. They belong to aves class and they can be found all over the world.
Birds breath with their air pocket. Beside as respiration organ, air pocket also can enlarge or reduce their weight when flying or swimming.
There are many kinds of birds. Earth bird has special characteristic. They have different morphology acording to their food and their habitat. Some of them eat seeds, pollen, fish or meat. There are some species that live in land and the others live in water. Land birds live on their nest.
Female birds have specific tasks. they lay eggs and feed their baby, Beside that they look for foods for their baby.
Ants are social insects, which means they live in large colonies or groups. Some colonies consist of millions of ants. There are three types of ants in each species, the queen, the sterile female workers, and males. The male ants only serve one purpose, to mate with future queen ants and do not live very long. The queen grows to adulthood, mates, and then spends the rest of her life laying eggs. A colony may have only one queen, or there may be many queens depending on the species. Ants go through four stages of development: egg, larva, pupa, and adult.
Ants have three main parts. The head, the trunk(middle section), and the rear or metasoma. All six legs are attached to the trunk. The head consists of the jaws, eyes, and antennae. The eyes of ants are made up of many lenses enabling them to see movement very well. The antennae are special organs of smell, touch, taste, and hearing. The metasoma contains the stomach and rectum. Many species of ants have poison sacks and/or stingers in the end of the metasoma for defense against their many predators.
Ants do not have lungs. Oxygen enters through tiny holes all over the body and Carbon Dioxide leaves through the same holes. There are no blood vessels. The heart is a long tube that pumps colorless blood from the head back to the rear and then back up to the head again. The blood kind of coats the insides of the ants and is then sucked into the tube and pumped up to the head again. The nervous system of ants consists of a long nerve cord that also runs from head to rear with branches leading to the parts of the body, kind of like a human spinal cord.
If you watch ants for any length of time you will see that they really do communicate with each other and very effectively too. Ants communicate by touching each other with their antennae. Ants also use chemicals called pheromones to leave scent trails for other ants to follow.
Music may be defined as the art of organizing sounds and silences into meaningful patterns. Music is one of the oldest arts. In the world history, every civilization is accompanied by any form of music. Thus, music is a part of every civilization.
There are many kinds of music, such as a classical music, waltz, jazz, pop music, and rock'n roll music. In this text we are going to discuss about jazz music.
Jazz began in the early 20th century as a music of black Americans. It was intended for singing, dancing, entertaining and party atmosphere. Since then, jazz continued to develop. There are many leading singers, instrumentalists, and composers in the world. Jazz also influenced almost every other kind of music. Jazz represents a blending of musical elements from Africa and from Europe. Jazz uses some European ideas of harmony and melody, but the rhythms are more African in origin. It is irregular in rhythm.
Jazz has also developed in Indonesia. Most people in Indonesia know who Ireng Maulana is. He and his band often appear on television. His band is one of the leading jazz music bands.
The Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) is the smallest rhino species.It is also the most distinctive rhinoceros. It has been hunted a lot that it almost extinct.There are less than 300 Sumatran rhinoceroses surviving in Malaysia and Indonesia.Between 1985 and 1995, the number of Sumatran rhinos declined by 50 percent because of poaching and habitat destruction.
The Sumatran rhinoceros has unique gray or reddish-brown coat. It is believed to be the only survivor of the lineage that included the woolly rhinoceros. Sumatran rhinos stand up to 1.4 m (4.6 ft) at the shoulder and weigh up to 1,000 kg (2,200 lb). They have folded skin, like the other Asian rhinos, except that it is covered with coarse, bristly hair.The Sumatran is the only rhino in Asia with two horns. The front horn is usually the longest, reaching a length of 90 cm (36 in), and the rear one is sometimes so small that the animal looks as if it is single-horned.
They live mainly in forest-covered hills near water and are known to be good at climbing slopes and swimming. They move mainly at night, and spend most of the day wallowing in mud-holes and pools. Sumatran rhinoceroses usually feed on leaves, twigs, and fruit.Female rhinos reach sexual maturity at about the age of five or six. The males mature between the ages of seven and eight. However, they do not father calves until they have claimed a territory, which may take them three or four years.Rhinos always have a single calf, born after a gestation period of 15 to 18 months. The calf may feed on its mother’s milk for up to two years, and it usually remains with its mother until she is about to give birth once more. The calf is only raised by its mother.
The Blue Whale
The Blue Whale is largest whale and the largest living creature on Earth. Blue whales were hunted a lot for oil, baleen, meat, and other products from the 1930s to the 1960s. This hunting almost caused the extinction of the species. They are now protected and may gradually be returning in several areas.
Blue whales are mainly found in very cold waters, like the Arctic and Antarctic waters. They migrate to the tropics in the winter and to the Arctic and Antarctic in summer.Blue whales can reach over 24 m (80 ft) long; mature females are usually a bit longer than mature males. They weigh between 87,500- 142,500 kg. The skin has a light grey and white spotty pattern. Blue whales feed by opening its mouth into dense groups of small sea creatures like plankton, krill or fish.Blue whales are mammals. They give birth once every two or three years. Mating occurs during the summer season, and they give birth after about 11 months. The calf nurse for seven or eight months and gain weight about 90 kg (200 lb) per day.
The Komodo Dragon is the world’s biggest lizard. It is a reptile, a cold-blooded animal. It is diurnal, most active during the day. The Komodo Dragon is a fast runner; it can run up to 11 mph (18 kph). It is also a good tree climber and swimmer.
The Komodo Dragon’s scientific name is Varanus komodoensis. It is in danger of extinction because of habitat lost. Its life span is about 20 years.
Komodo Dragons live on islands in Indonesia, including the island of Komodo.They live in hot, humid, grassy lowlands and in rainforests.
The Komodo Dragon is about 9 feet (2.8 m) long, but can get up to 10 feet (3 m) long and weighs up to 300 pounds (135 kg). It has large jaws, four short legs, and fivetoed feet with sharp claws. The tail is longer than the body. It senses chemicals with a long, yellow, forked tongue.
The Komodo Dragon is a carnivore (meat-eater). It eats almost anything that it can catch, including goats, deer, wild boars, other lizards, and carrion (dead meat that it finds). The Komodo Dragon has disease-ridden bacteria in its mouth. After it bites its prey, the victim will get sick and die from blood poisoning in one or two days. The Komodo Dragon will then find the body and eat it.
The female digs a hole in the ground, lays 20-40 eggs, and then covers them up with soil. The eggs hatch in about 7 months. Hatchlings eat mostly insects and live i$n trees.
The polar bears, which are usually called white bears, are found on the sea ice of the Arctic Circle throughout the North Polar basin. They are classified as Ursus maritimus. They live for about 25 to 30 years.They are now endangered because of habitat destruction.
Polar bears have white fur which may yellow in the summer. Their bodies are longer than other bears and streamlined for aquatic life. The females grow up to 1.8 m (6 ft) long; males grow up to 2 m (7 ft) long. Most male polar bears weigh an average of about 350 kg (about 880 lb), and most females weigh about 250 kg (550 lb). They have the plantigrade feet (heel and sole touching the ground, with five sharp, curved claws on each foot for grasping the ice and holding its prey. Long hair between the pads protects the bear's feet from the cold and provides grip on the ice. Stiff hairs on the forelegs, and very broad front feet, help the bear swim.
Polar bears have a strong navigational sense and an extremely good sense of smell, and they are unusually clever at solving problems in order to obtain food. Since they are carnivores; they eat primarily ringed seals, and occasionally bearded seals, walruses, or white whales. They also feed on berries, sedges, mussels, and kelp.
They live in pack ice where water is accessible. They can be found throughout Arctic regions.
Except during the breeding season, male polar bears are solitary and roam over vast expanses of sea ice while hunting. During the breeding season (May to June), the males fight furiously over females. Both the male and female may mate with other individuals as well. The female typically gives birth to two cubs after a four- to fivemonth gestation period. Cubs remain with the mother for about 28 months, often nursing the entire time. The young are very small when born: about 1 kg (about 2 lb).Their eyes remain closed for about 40 days and they must nurse every few hours. The mother holds them close to keep them warm.
Earthquake is a sudden shaking of the earth's surface that often causes a lot of damage. It is the result of a sudden release of stored energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. Earthquakes may happen naturally or as a result of human activities. Smaller earthquakes can also be caused by volcanic activity, landslides, mine blasts, and nuclear experiments.
At the Earth's surface, earthquakes can be seen from the shaking or displacement of the ground. Sometimes, they cause tsunamis, which may lead to loss of life and damage of property. There are two types of earthquake that occurs naturally, they are tectonic and volcanic earthquakes. Tectonic earthquakes are earthquakes that are caused by tectonic plates getting stuck and putting a strain on the ground. The strain becomes so great that rocks give way by breaking and sliding along fault planes. Volcanic earthquakes are earthquakes which are caused by the movement of magma in volcanoes. In volcanic regions earthquakes may be caused both by tectonic faults and by the movement of magma in volcanoes. Such earthquakes can be an early warning of volcanic eruptions
The size of an earthquake is usually reported using the Richter scale or a related Moment scale. Earthquakes which are 3 on the Richter scale or lower are hard to notice. Whereas, those which are 7 on the Richter scale causes serious damage over large areas.
Flood is an overflow of water that soaks or covers land. Floods are the most frequent type of natural disaster worldwide. It can be caused by several things, naturally and form the effect of human behavior. The most common cause is because of the over capacity of the body of water, e.g. river or lake. As a result some of the water flows
outside of the body of water. It can also occur in rivers, when the strength of the river is so high that it flows right out of the river channel. A flood from sea may be caused by a heavy storm, a high tide, a tsunami, or a combination the three.
Soil and vegetation absorbs most of the surface water, floods happen when there are lack of trees and the soil alone cannot absorb all the water. The water then runs off the land in quantities that cannot be carried in stream channels or kept in natural ponds or man-made reservoirs. A flood can also be caused by blocked sewage pipes and waterways, such as the Jakarta flood.
There are several types of flood. Periodic floods occur naturally on many rivers, forming an area known as the flood plain. These river floods usually result from heavy rain, sometimes combined with melting snow, which causes the rivers to overflow their banks. A flood that rises and falls rapidly with little or no advance warning is called a flash flood.
Tsunami, Japanese word meaning “harbour wave,” used as the scientific term for a class of abnormal sea wave that can cause catastrophic damage when it hits a coastline. Tsunamis can be generated by an undersea earthquake, an undersea landslide, the eruption of an undersea volcano, or by the force of an asteroid crashing into the cean.The most frequent cause of tsunamis is an undersea earthquake.
A tsunami can have wavelengths, or widths (the distance between one wave crest
to the next), of 100 to 200 km (60 to 120 mi), and may travel hundreds of kilometres
across the deep ocean, reaching speeds of about 725 to 800 km/h (about 450 to 500 mph). A tsunami is not one wave but a series of waves. In the deep ocean, the waves may be only about half a meter (a foot or two) high. People onboard a ship passing over it would not even notice the tsunami. Upon entering shallow coastal waters, however, the waves may suddenly grow rapidly in height. When the waves reach the shore, they may be 15 m (50 ft) high or more. Tsunamis can also take the form of a very fast tide or bore, depending on the shape of the sea floor.
Tsunamis have tremendous force because of the great volume of water affected
and the speed at which they travel. Just a cubic yard of water, for example, weighs about one ton. Although the tsunami slows to a speed of about 48 km/h (30 mph) as it
approaches a coastline, it has a destructive force equal to millions of tons. Tsunamis are capable of obliterating coastal settlements.